(This is one of my earlier pages on the value of Creation and how we should care for it. I have left it almost as it was, for its overall perspective, but have added some links throughout the text and some more at the end.)
In Genesis 1:26-28, God gives humankind 'dominion' over his Creation. Many have seemed to assume this justifies our 'domination' of Creation. The 'domination' we have exercised has had the following characteristics:
Here is an exposition of passages of Scripture that show that the Creation is important to God, and should also be important to us. Ecological damage is an evil in God's eyes. And the creation will be redeemed just as humanity will be. A similar message, though in a different style, can be found in a wider discussion of why Christians in particular should be 'green'.
(NB. Westminster confession: Chief end of Man: to glorify God and enjoy him forever: no: to steward the Creation.) (Link also with: we are God's representatives, ambassadors, sons, trusted servants: to show him forth, be like him, have his attitudes. Also God is Love. For that see later page on being Shepherds of Creation.)
We have taken it to mean 'dominate over' just as a mediaeval ruler or potentate would dominate over his subjects, using them for his own ends, his own pleasure, his own prestige, his own wars, etc. But an examination of 'radah' shows that this is NOT the type of 'dominion' that we are called upon to have over the creation. For example, 'radah' is used in Ezek 34:4, which shows the wrong type of 'radah'. The use of 'radah' there shows that God condemns such an attitude:
"Woe to the shepherds of Israel, who only take care of themselves! Should not shepherds take care of the flock? You eat the curds, clothe yourselves with the wool and slaughter the choice animals, but you do not take care of the flock. You have not strengthened the weak or healed the sick or bound up the injured. You have not brought back the strays or searched for the lost. You have ruled [radah] them harshly and brutally." (2-5).
Whilst we might argue precisely how this applies, I am here referring to it at a higher level, namely that it shows the heart of God, whose image we are made in. And that image is tied up with our 'radah' of the creation.
Our 'radah', of the creation, is not to be with harshness and cruelty and selfishness. Our 'radah' is to be, not for our own sake, but for the sake of the one ruled, that is, for the sake of the creation. We should heal those parts of creation that are sick, bind up those parts that are injured, bring back those parts that are straying, search for those parts that have become lost, as it were.
So we 'radah' creation to represent God to it, to develop and refine and beautify it for its own sake, rather than for ours. (cf. the notion of Love: giving for the other. God is Love.)
Note: This Creation Mandate has never been rescinded. It is still in force for us, even in this gospel period.
Since I wrote that, I have studied 'radah' in more detail. See
While these passages are picturesque, they do express a truth: that creation rejoices in God and God's ways. Each thing 'rejoices' in the way appropriate to it; e.g. a tree would 'rejoice' in the way that a tree can, and so on. Each thing rejoices because God's ways bring health, bounty, true prosperity, shalom.
All creation, including human and non-human together, find that God's ways are good, and to be shouted about.
(See also Reality Rejoicing.)
The Greek word for 'sons' is not that used for 'children' or 'make offspring', but is 'hios': those who are like the father in attitude, will, decision-making tendencies, etc. The father of those times would, when he reckoned his male child had come to this state of maturity, take his son to the public place and announce "This is my son". Meaning "I trust him to choose, behave, decide like me, and will stand all his promises he makes."
God has sons, those who come to the maturity in Christ in such a way that we have the attitude, will, decision-making tendencies that God himself has. God is Love; his sons will be love, rather than selfishness. This links with the type of 'radah' that we should display.
Now, this makes sense of Romans 8:19. As we saw above, God's creation 'rejoices' in God's ways, when it is treated as God would. So, in this period in which creation suffers the harm caused by selfish humanity who exercise wrong type of 'radah' over it, it is eagerly longing for those human beings who will truly be God's sons (hios) and behave towards it like God would.
So, when God's sons are revealed (or appear on the scene), the creation rejoices. Because they are like God, and will treat it like God does. Or like God would. (This links too with our role and purpose, and the idea of being God's ambassadors and representatives.)
(See also An Exposition of Romans 8 and Three Dimensions of Salvation.)
Note that it is relational rather than individualistic or state-centred in meaning. Note also that it goes beyond legal frameworks. Note that, though translated 'righteousness', 'tsedeq' is not goodness; though translated 'justice' it is not legal judgement or retribution. Both are tsedeq. The meanings we normally apply to 'justice' and 'righteousness' are distortions, arising from what happens when we start with the presupposition that the Creation is of no value. If it is with all creation, then all creation is important. Let's see if that is so.
(See also study of Justice and Righteousness.)
(See also Hosea 4:2-3, noting the "because of this" link between human sin and ecological disaster.)
(See also God's Love which embraces the whole Creation, and a whole page on God's Love.)
(See also God's Cosmic Plan.)
And who is destroying the earth today? We are, those of us for whom manufacturers used to create refrigerators filled with CFCs, those of us for whom electric power is created that brings global warming, those of us who use our cars without thinking and when we could walk or cycle, and thus produce greenhouse gases, those of us who demand cheap food from all over the world and thus indirectly the destruction of rainforests and local communities, those of us who demand low taxes so that Government does not properly clean our waste, and the seas become polluted, those of us who ... are, by our expectations, habits, demands, are forcing others to destroy the earth.
(So, if we mess up the creation, with pollution or by driving species to extinction, as we do, then we are damaging Christ's inheritance. We claim to love him; do we? Or are we carelessly letting his inheritance be less than it would otherwise be?)
Notice also that that famous verse John 3:16, tells us that God so loved the world; that is, the creation, not just humanity. It specifically does not say "God so loved humankind that he gave his Son...".
In Col 1:20 and Eph 1:10 we find similar sentiments: The whole universe is to be reconciled with God, summed up in Christ, not just humanity.
Notice Matt 24:37-41. When Christ comes again, "One will be taken and the other left." Who will be left? We assume that the righeous ones will be taken from this earth, to escape it, and the wicked ones will be left, and destroyed. But look a few verses back; Jesus very explicitly compared the future division of humanity with that in the days of Noah. There it was the wicked who were taken away; the righteous were the ones who were left.
The problem is that for centuries we have assumed that the creation is unimportant to God, and will be destroyed; that idea has more to do with pagan Greek thinking than with what is revealed in Scripture. In fact, the earth will survive (though renewed and resurrected just as we will be).
This page, "http://abxn.org/creation.html" is part of Andrew Basden's abxn.org pages - pages that open up discussion and exploration from a Christian ('xn') perspective. Written on the Amiga with Protext, in the style of classic HTML.
Comments, queries welcome. or send message to:
In case you cannot read that, it is the letters "xn" (for "Christian") at "kgsvr" followed by ".net" (standing for knowledge server on the net"). Thank you.
Copyright (c) Andrew Basden at all dates below. But you may use this material for almost any non-antagonistic purpose (including commercial) subject to certain easy conditions.
Created 16 January 2000. Last updated: 7 February 2001 email. 11 March 2001 new intro, and link to green.html. 19 November 2006 unet. 1 January 2009 new .end. 15 January 2017 new .nav, .end., links. 24 May 2021 added intro statement about this being early writing, and links at various places; new .end,.nav,bgcolor.